Comparison of outcome between percutaneous dilatation tracheostomy and surgical tracheostomy in Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar

Authors: Syafri K. Arif, Andy Setiawan, Hisbullah, Faisal Muchtar, Haizah Nurdin

Abstract

Percutaneous dilatation tracheostomy (PDT) has been widely used in Indonesia, yet no study to evaluate the outcome of PDT compared to surgical tracheostomy (ST) is available.

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the use of PDT in Indonesia.

Design: Non-randomized comparative retrospective study.

Setting: Intensive Care Unit of Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar.

Patients: Eighty-four patients aged 15 to 90 years, undergone tracheostomy during 2016 to 2017 were evaluated.

Measurements and results: Samples were evaluated in terms of surgical duration, blood loss volume, mortality, and complication rates such as post-operative bleeding, pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, stomal infection, tracheal stenosis/malacia, and unintended fistula formation. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS version 22. Mean operative duration of PDT (18.3 minutes) were significantly faster than ST (40.2 minutes) (p<0.05), accompanied by significant reduction of mean blood loss 13.6 ml compared to 21.1 ml in ST group (p<0.05). A total of 9 complications (18.8%) found in ST group and 5 (13.9%) in PDT group, with stomal infection was the most common complications. Mortality rate were 52.8% in PDT group and 45.8% in ST group (p>0.05), none associated with the procedure itself.

Conclusion: It is suggested that PDT is a superior technique in placement of tracheostomy canula.

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Case report: a fatal case of severe pancreatitis associated with rhabdomyolysis

Authors: Saw Kian Cheah, Mohamed Izzad bin Isahak, Wan Rahiza Wan Mat, Shereen Suet Ping Tang, Rufinah Teo, Aliza Mohamad Yusof, Raha Abdul Rahman

Abstract

Background: Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon presentation associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Patients usually present late and asymptomatic, thus it carries poorer clinical outcome and higher mortality rate.

Case report: We report a case of SAP in a 42-year-old man who presented with persistent epigastric pain, elevated serum amylase, and characteristics of acute pancreatitis on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen. Investigations revealed persistent hyperkalemia and severely elevated creatinine kinase in the presence of acute kidney injury, which led to the uncommon possibility of diagnosing severe rhabdomyolysis. He suffered complications of intra-abdominal hypertension, feeding intolerance, severe ARDS and multi-organ failure. He succumbed to death after a month despite aggressive intensive care therapies and support.

Discussion: The actual pathophysiology of rhabdomyolysis in SAP is complex. It is postulated that acute inflammation of pancreas causes ATP-dependent proton pump dysfunctions leading to skeletal muscle cells injury and therefore, rhabdomyolysis.

Conclusion: Coexistence of rhabdomyolysis with SAP have higher risk for fatality, therefore, its presence allows early triage, early aggressive resuscitation and intensive care management.

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When you know too much for your own good: The Boston-Varon syndrome

Authors: Joseph Varon, James Boston

It has been stated that knowledge is everything. However, sometimes this can actually be counterproductive. For example, the so-called “medical students' disease” (or second-year syndrome, intern's syndrome), has been described as a condition in medical students, who perceive themselves to be experiencing the symptoms of a disease that they are studying. This syndrome is associated with an intense fear of contracting the disease in question.

An identical syndrome could potentially be ascribed to those who care for patients, and in whom on of their family members suffer a condition that requires diagnosis. Here, we describe a variant of such syndrome, for which we have coined the term Boston-Varon Syndrome (BVS).

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McConnell’s sign is not specific for acute pulmonary embolism – A case report

Authors: Mohamad Iqhbal Bin Kunji Mohamad, Mohd Fazrul Bin Moktar, Julina @Azimah Mohd Noor, Nur Abdul Karim, Izzat Bin Ismail, Abdul Halim Bin Sanib, Mohd Amin Mohd Mokhtar, Safreeda SF Salim

Abstract

Since 1996, McConnell’s sign, defined as right free wall hypokinesia with apical sparing, described as one of the most specific echocardiographic finding for acute pulmonary embolism. It was incorporated in the standard teaching and text book as a tell-tale sign for the condition. This is a case report of a patient presented with chest pain and presyncope with markedly raised D-dimer and suspicious electrocardiogram finding. The bedside focused cardiac ultrasound revealed the classical McConnell’s sign. However, the computed tomography pulmonary angiogram for pulmonary embolism was negative. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as pulmonary hypertension secondary from chronic methamphetamine abuse. This case highlights that McConnell’s sign is not specific for acute pulmonary embolism. It is also important to stratify patient according to a validated clinical probability score for pulmonary embolism before initiating definitive acute treatment.

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Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine as treatment of septic shock combined with cardiogenic shock: a case report and literature review

Authors: Temima Saltzman, Adel Hanna, Shan Wang

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether the concomitant administration of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine improves sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and mortality in a patient with septic and cardiogenic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), gram negative bacteremia, cardiomyopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 95% mortality on presentation.

Design: A case report and literature review.

Setting: Surgical Intensive Care Unit at NYU Winthrop Hospital.

Patient: Patient with 95% mortality received appropriate treatment for septic and cardiogenic shock with no clinical improvement.

Intervention: Hydrocortisone 50 mg intravenous push (IVP) every 6 hours for four days, vitamin C 1,500 mg IV every 6 hours for four days, and thiamine 200 mg intravenous piggyback (IVPB) every 12 hours for four days.

Conclusion: Our patient had a remarkable survival of what was thought to be indefinite mortality with the intervention of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine. The administration of the vitamin C protocol warrants a randomized controlled trial to change management of septic shock and mortality. We are very optimistic that it will show similar results yielding a significant decrease in mortality rates in patients with septic shock.

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Short-term complications of ultrasound-guided bedside peripherally inserted central catheter in the Intensive Care Unit: 1 year experiences

Authors: Se Heon Kim, Young Hoon Sul, Yook Kim, Joong Suck Kim, Moon Sang Ahn

Abstract

Objectives: Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) need central catheter for various reasons, such as long-term intravenous access, nutrition, antibiotic usage, or chemotherapy. Generally, peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines are the most commonly used type of intravenous access meant for long-term use. But, moving critically ill patients from the intensive care unit to the interventional radiology room (IRR), where PICC installation is usually performed, can disrupt ongoing critical care and may be in dangerous situation. Recently, several articles have reported the successful clinical implementation of bedside PICC installation under ultrasound (US) guidance. We aimed to evaluate and report the 1 year experiences of bedside PICC installation under US guidance in ICU by analysis short-term complications.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 123 PICCs placed in adult ICU at a tertiary care academic medical center between October 2017 and September 2018. The data were analyzed to identify short-term complications, such as malposition of catheter tip, infection, and occlusion.

Results: Among 123 PICCs, 52 cases were performed in the IRR and 71 cases were performed in the ICU. The overall complications were in 18 cases (14.6%). Malposition of catheter tip was found in 12 cases (9.8%), infection was found in 4 cases (3.3%), occlusion was found in 2 cases (1.6%). Complication rate was higher in the ICU group (18.3%) than the IRR group (9.6%). Malposition was found in 11 cases in the ICU group and 1 case in the IRR group. Infection was found in 2 cases in both groups. Occlusion was found in 1 case in both groups.

Conclusions: The incidence of malposition of catheter tip as short-term complication is higher in the case of performing bedside PICC installation under ultrasound in ICU than in IRR.

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The effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure in reducing the need of endotracheal intubation and increase extubation outcomes

Authors: Nadya Farhana, Zulkifli Amin

Abstract

Background: Myasthenia gravis is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. The affected muscle are ocular muscle, oropharyngeal muscle, facial muscle, and respiratory muscle. This leads to respiratory failure in myasthenia gravis patients with myasthenic crisis. Noninvasive ventilation has been used to treat patients with hypercapnia respiratory failure and associated with reduction of the need of endotracheal intubation, reduction of complication rate, reduction of hospital stays, and reduction of mortality. In myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure, there is no evidence that noninvasive ventilation would reduce those factors. Thus, we studied the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure in reducing the need of endotracheal intubation and increase extubation outcomes.

Methods: Literature review on PubMed, Elton B. Stephens Co. (EBSCO), Cochrane, and ScienceDirect yield two relevant articles.

Results: Two studies showed that noninvasive ventilation in subject with myasthenia gravis with respiratory failure had better effect.

Conclusion: It is effective to use noninvasive ventilation in subject with myasthenia gravis during their respiratory failure in myasthenic crisis.

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Carisoprodol intoxication: a comprehensive review

Authors: Zulkifli Amin, Steven Zulkifly, Stephen Diah Iskandar

Abstract

Carisoprodol has been widely used as a muscle relaxant agent. In Indonesia, carisoprodol is well-known as carnophene/zenith. Many retailers sell this drug illegally, especially to sex workers to make them feel more relaxed. Due to high incidence of carisoprodol abuse, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorized it into Schedule IV. Knowledge about pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of carisoprodol are essential to be understood for proper diagnosis and management. Until now, there are only a few case reports about carisoprodol intoxication and no guideline has been published. This article aims to provide an overview about carisoprodol intoxication, starting from the mechanism of action to its management. In the body, carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate by CYP2C19 liver enzyme. Diagnosis of carisoprodol intoxication is challenging because carisoprodol and meprobamate have opposite effect. Gastric lavage, administration of flumazenil and bemegride may be effective for acute intoxication case.

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The use of furosemide in critically ill patients

Authors: Mayang Indah Lestari, Yohannes WH George

Abstract

Critically ill patients are those with life threatening illness who, without adequate medical interventions, will suffer from severe morbidity and occasionally mortality. One of the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients is distributive or vasogenic shock. After liberal fluid resuscitation, an increase in microvascular hydrostatic pressure, fluid accumulation of interstitial compartment, and impaired organ function occur. Normally this phase, called ebb phase, will return to flow phase where inflammatory mediators homeostasis occurs, plasma oncotic pressure restored, diuresis, extravascular fluid mobilized and negative fluid balance occur. In certain group of patients, there is persistent systemic inflammation, plasma leakage, and failure to achieve flow phase spontaneously, which lead to fluid overload and global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS). GIPS causes venous resistance of organs within compartment, resulting in decreased perfusion pressure and organ failure. In this condition, it is necessary to remove the fluid actively and one of the drugs that can be used is furosemide. This literature review will describe what happens in critically ill patients, how furosemide works, what its benefits are in critically ill patients, what side effects and potential toxicities of furosemide.

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Accuracy of calculated creatinine among amputees: case presentation and literature review

Authors: Janay Bailey, Elizabeth Awudi, Charlene Kalani, George Udeani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani

Abstract

Dosing vancomycin for patients who do not follow population pharmacokinetics can be challenging. Standard predictive clinical equations do not account for extreme patient characteristics. In particular, serum creatinine is significantly reduced while creatinine clearance is overestimated in patients with amputations. The “missing” body part must be accounted for when executing a dosing regimen for these challenging patients. In addition, health care professionals must judiciously review the patient holistically, practice evidence-based medicine, and consider the overestimation of renal function, when calculating doses for this and other agents. While current literature does not provide a clear consensus for this population, there are several factors to take into consideration when determining the optimal dose in patients presenting to the hospital requiring medications dosed by changes in renal function. We recently had one such case.

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Sodium bicarbonate buffering for metabolic acidosis does not hasten hemodynamic improvement in septic shock: a retrospective analysis of a 5-year period

Authors: John H. Ferguson, Maurice M. Otterstetter, Nicholas JK Tranchida, James DeFoe

Abstract

Objective: Severe metabolic acidosis often occurs in the setting of septic shock and hemodynamic collapse. Acid buffering agents such as sodium bicarbonate are often used to improve acidosis, although the hemodynamic benefit of improving the serum pH is uncertain and has been evaluated only in a few small clinical studies.

Design: A retrospective cohort of patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock who were treated with sodium bicarbonate.

Setting: A single-center mixed medical-cardiac-surgical intensive care unit.

Patients and participants: 21 patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock who were treated with sodium bicarbonate. Patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock who were not treated with sodium bicarbonate served as a matched control group.

Interventions: The primary endpoint was the change in norepinephrine equivalent (NEEq) dose at 24 and 48 hours after initiation of sodium bicarbonate when compared to non-sodium bicarbonate treated patients. Secondary outcomes included: hospital mortality, the impact of hypocalcemia on vasopressor requirements, and the impact of hypercapnia on vasopressor requirements in sodium bicarbonate treated patients.

Measurements and results: Patients with vasopressor-dependent septic shock who were not treated with sodium bicarbonate had no difference in the decline of vasopressor requirements than those administered sodium bicarbonate at 24 hours (0.09 μg/kg/min; 95% CI, [-0.23, 0.05], p=0.19) and at 48 hours (0.04 μg/kg/min; 95% CI [-0.11, 0.18], p=0.60). In patients with pH≤7.15, there was no difference in the change in NEEq dose between sodium bicarbonate treated or non-bicarbonate treated patients at 24 hours (0.05 μg/kg/min, 95% CI, [-0.09, 0.11], p=0.69) or at 48 hours (0.19 μg/kg/min, 95% CI, [-0.52, 0.14], p=0.17).

Conclusions: Administration of sodium bicarbonate did not improve vasopressor requirements at 24 or 48 hours, even in patients with a pH less than 7.15. Mortality and vasopressor needs are high in patients with pH less than 7.15 and unaffected by sodium bicarbonate administration.

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Predictors of perceptions of patient safety culture and frequency of event reporting by critical care nurses in Oman: a model-building approach

Authors: Qasim Al Ma'mari, Loai Abu Sharour, Omar Al Omari

Abstract

Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the predictors of critical care nurses’ perceptions of patient safety culture and the frequency of event reporting.

Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Patient safety culture was assessed using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture, which was completed by 270 critical care nurses working in two hospitals in Oman.

Results: The results revealed that teamwork within units had the highest positive score (91.8%), followed by organisational learning and continuous improvement (86.3%) and feedback and communication about errors (77.7%). Regression analysis showed that teamwork within units, supervisor/manager expectations and actions promoting patient safety, organisational learning and continuous improvement, management support for patient safety, feedback and communication about errors, teamwork across units, staffing, hospital handoffs and transitions, and patient safety grade were all predictors of the overall perception of patient safety culture among critical care nurses in Oman (R2=0.462, adjusted R2=0.186; F=7.83, p<0.0001). Regression analysis showed that openness in communication, income, non-punitive response to errors, organisational learning and continuous improvement, and feedback and communication about errors were predictors of the frequency of events reporting among critical care nurses in Oman (R2=0.24, adjusted R2=0.043; F=3.41, p<0.0001).

Conclusion: Patient safety culture is an important indicator of the quality of care, and represents one of the key performance indicators in the healthcare setting.

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Eosinopenia as an indicator for organ dysfunction in septic patients

Authors: Syafri Kamsul Arif

Abstract

Sepsis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU).

Objective: To determine the possibility of eosinophil as indicator for organ dysfunctions in sepsis patients and septic shock patients in ICU.

Design: Prospective.

Setting: Intensive care unit (ICU) Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar.

Participants: Adult sepsis patients admitted to ICU from October to December 2018.

Measurement: Eosinophils count and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were assessed within 24 hours and after 72 hours after patients admitted in ICU. The patients were categorized into non- and organ dysfunction groups based on SOFA scores after 72 hours. Outcomes of the patients then evaluated at day 7.

Results: Thirty four sepsis patients participated in the study. The mean of SOFA scores between non- and organ dysfunction groups were not different within 24 hours after admission but then showed a difference after 72 hours (p=0.558 and p<0.001, respectively). In contrast with non-organ dysfunction patients, after 72 hours the eosinophil count in organ dysfunction group decreased (from 0.51 to 0.15 cells/µl). There was a negative correlation between eosinophil count and SOFA scores at 72 hours (p=0.043; rho: -0.350). In discriminating non-organ dysfunction and organ dysfunction groups, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.714. Eosinophils at 0.5 cells/µl (eosinopenia) yielded a sensitivity of 92.8%, a specificity of 66.6%, a positive predictive value of 92.8%, and a negative predictive value of 66,6%.

Conclusion: Eosinopenia levels might be used as an indicator for organ dysfunction in critically ill patients, including sepsis patients, in area where laboratory facility is limited.

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