Authors: Suryadi Nicolaas Napoleon Tatura, Elizabeth Clarissa Wowor, Priscilla Cantia Tatura-Kalensang, Meilany Duri, Tonny Homenta Rampengan
Background: Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. Forty percent of all human rabies occur in children <14–year–old. In up to 99% of rabies virus is transmitted by dogs.
Objective: To determine the mortality risk factor of children with rabies dog bites in Prof. Dr. RD Kandou Hospital, Manado, from 2012–2016.
Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients with rabies dog bites. Rabies was diagnosed via detection of nucleoprotein from dogs brain using fluorescent antibody test (FAT). We used chi-square test and calculated odd ratio using software SPSS 23.0 to determine the mortality risk factor of patients with rabies dog bites, considering p value <0.05 as significant.
Results: During the study period, 38 children came with rabies dog bites (71.1% were boys). Incubation period range from 1 week to 4 years. Most common bites location was hand. Symptoms associated with rabies mortality were hydrophobia (OR 143, 95% CI 11.78-1735.96, p=0.0001), photophobia (OR 19.6, 95% CI 2.04-181.93, p=0.002), and hypersalivation (100% mortality, p=0.0001). Post–exposure vaccination associated with mortality of patients (OR 0.003, 95% CI 0.000-0.056, p=0.0001).
Conclusion: Hypersalivation, hydrophobia, and photophobia are major risk factors of rabies dog bites mortality. Post–exposure vaccination is important to prevent rabies infection after a high-risk bite.