Case report: a fatal case of severe pancreatitis associated with rhabdomyolysis

Abstract

Background: Rhabdomyolysis is an uncommon presentation associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Patients usually present late and asymptomatic, thus it carries poorer clinical outcome and higher mortality rate.

Case report: We report a case of SAP in a 42-year-old man who presented with persistent epigastric pain, elevated serum amylase, and characteristics of acute pancreatitis on the contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen. Investigations revealed persistent hyperkalemia and severely elevated creatinine kinase in the presence of acute kidney injury, which led to the uncommon possibility of diagnosing severe rhabdomyolysis. He suffered complications of intra-abdominal hypertension, feeding intolerance, severe ARDS and multi-organ failure. He succumbed to death after a month despite aggressive intensive care therapies and support.

Discussion: The actual pathophysiology of rhabdomyolysis in SAP is complex. It is postulated that acute inflammation of pancreas causes ATP-dependent proton pump dysfunctions leading to skeletal muscle cells injury and therefore, rhabdomyolysis.

Conclusion: Coexistence of rhabdomyolysis with SAP have higher risk for fatality, therefore, its presence allows early triage, early aggressive resuscitation and intensive care management.


McConnell’s sign is not specific for acute pulmonary embolism - A case report

Abstract

Since 1996, McConnell’s sign, defined as right free wall hypokinesia with apical sparing, described as one of the most specific echocardiographic finding for acute pulmonary embolism. It was incorporated in the standard teaching and text book as a tell-tale sign for the condition. This is a case report of a patient presented with chest pain and presyncope with markedly raised D-dimer and suspicious electrocardiogram finding. The bedside focused cardiac ultrasound revealed the classical McConnell’s sign. However, the computed tomography pulmonary angiogram for pulmonary embolism was negative. The patient was subsequently diagnosed as pulmonary hypertension secondary from chronic methamphetamine abuse. This case highlights that McConnell’s sign is not specific for acute pulmonary embolism. It is also important to stratify patient according to a validated clinical probability score for pulmonary embolism before initiating definitive acute treatment.


Surgical emphysema complicating inferior alveolar nerve cryoablation

We present a case of widespread surgical emphysema following cryoablation of the right inferior alveolar nerve in the setting of trigeminal neuralgia refractory to carbamazepine pharmacotherapy.


Fatal neck necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae

Abstract

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod enterobacteria that is notorious for its role as carrier of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and its carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) species. However, hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae is distinctly different from ESBL and CRE. We report a case of neck necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a 56-year-old male who presented to our emergency department (ED) with a swollen neck. His condition deteriorated rapidly requiring emergency intubation to secure his airway. Despite aggressive resuscitation and treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and cytokine adsorption therapy, the patient succumbed to his disease. This report describes the clinical characteristics of hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae and emphasizes the importance of early detection and subsequent aggressive source control interventions in necrotizing fascitiis caused by this particular bacteria.


The successful treatment of severe aspiration pneumonitis with the combination of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid and thiamine

Abstract

Aspiration pneumonitis is a neutrophil mediated inflammatory pneumonitis following the aspiration of regurgitated gastric contents. This syndrome occurs most commonly in patients with depressed levels of consciousness such as drug overdose, seizures, and during anesthesia. Aspiration pneumonitis is the most common cause of anesthesia-related deaths. Aspiration pneumonitis may be clinically silent or present as severe acute lung injury (ARDS) progressing to death. The treatment of acid aspiration pneumonitis is largely supportive. We present two cases of severe life threatening ARDS due to acid aspiration who were treated with the combination of hydrocortisone, ascorbic acid, and thiamine (HAT) and made a dramatic recovery. This treatment strategy should be considered in the management of patients with aspiration pneumonitis.


Secondary pyomyositis complicated by septic shock and sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy causing a massive erector spinae abscess in a patient after trigger point injection

Abstract

Trigger point injection is a common pain control method widely practiced around the world.

We report the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with lumbago and septic shock complicated with sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy three days after receiving a trigger point injection. She responded to sepsis treatment and empiric antibiotics but later required extensive drainage and debridement after a follow-up CT scan revealed a massive abscess above the fascia of erector spinae spanning from the level of the 1st thoracic spine to the 5th lumbar spine. With extensive surgical drainage and effective antimicrobial treatment, the patient recovered fully and was discharged without any sequelae.


Post-surgical right coronary artery injury secondary to tricuspid valve repair

Abstract

Injury to the right coronary artery (RCA) is a rare complication of tricuspid annuloplasty. We report a 64-year-old woman with history of valvular heart disease that was admitted for decompensated right heart failure. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty. Shortly after tricuspid annuloplasty the patient developed right ventricular (RV) infarction with hemodynamic compromise. The coronary angiogram shows subtotal occlusion at the mid segment of right coronary artery probably due to stitch of the tricuspid ring. The RCA has successfully been revascularized by percutaneous coronary angioplasty with bare metal stent, however the patient got into multi-organs failure syndrome and died at day 15 postoperatively.


Late pacemaker perforation of the right ventricle. A case report and review of diagnosis and management

Abstract

Objectives: Pacemaker incidence and prevalence are on the rise over the last decade especially in the elderly population. Though complications are rare, most reported literature is about early pacemaker complication. Late complications are also reported, but mostly regarding malfunction or infections. Very few case reports and series report late cardiac perforations which could be catastrophic. We report a case of late cardiac perforation diagnosed and treated in our institution to raise the awareness of this very serious complication.

Case summary: A 65-year-old male who had a single chamber right ventricular pacemaker inserted two months earlier for sick sinus syndrome, presented to the hospital with complaint of shortness of breath. Chest X-ray (CXR) revealed new large left sided pleural effusions. Computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest suggested migration of the pacemaker lead with perforation of the right ventricle associated with hemothorax with no pericardial effusions. A bedside echo confirmed the perforation and showed minimal pericardial effusions with no cardiac tamponade. Clinically patient was hemodynamically stable. He underwent open surgical repair and placement of epicardial pacer leads.

Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of the early and late complications of pacemaker insertions and how to diagnose and treat them appropriately to avoid unnecessary morbidity or mortality.


Anticholinergic drug-induced benign unilateral anisocoria: common, but frequently overlooked side effect

Abstract

Sudden anisocoria have always been ominous signs among critically ill patients, which requires prompt attention. There are various causes of anisocoria, which call for comprehensive evaluation to rule out neurologic causes such as Adie’s pupil, uncal herniation, compression of third cranial nerve, meningeal irritation, and seizures as opposed to the pharmacological causes such as anticholinergic drugs, anesthesia, and recreational drugs versus causes such as migraine and trauma to the eye. We hereby report a case of a patient with unilateral anisocoria from dilated left pupil due to the nebulized ipratropium bromide, a cholinergic antagonist that resolved with discontinuation of the medication. The purpose of this case report is to emphasize the importance of thorough physical assessment, an early review of the medications, and the use of inexpensive diagnostic test to save time and avoid the expensive diagnostic study.


Case series: two cases of life threatening dynamic airway obstruction from thyroid mass

Abstract

We present 2 cases of dynamic airway obstruction with respiratory failure leading to cardiac arrest. Both have significant aetiology of cystic thyroid mass with sudden haemorrhagic changes leading to airway obstruction. We discuss the plausible pathophysiology leading to cardiopulmonary compromise where tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) and excessive dynamic airway collapse (EDAC) play a significant role. We note that this is under recognised and can be present as a life-threatening event. Recognition of these pathophysiology process facilitate surgical management of thyroid obstructive airway disease.


Respiratory arrest following CT guided selective cervical nerve root injection

CT guided cervical nerve root injection is performed for diagnostic purposes or to reduce inflammation and pain in cervical radiculopathy. Steroid and local anaesthetic are injected under CT guidance around the nerve root. This is performed as an outpatient procedure with most patients being able to be discharged 15-30 mins after the procedure. CT guidance allows the operator to see the best pathway for the needle whilst visualising structures such as the carotid and vertebral artery.

It is generally a safe procedure, with one recent study by RS Pobiel et al showing out of 802 fluoroscopy guided cervical nerve root blockades there were no major complications.


Use of levocarnitine as an alternative treatment for non-anticoagulant rodenticide poisoning

Abstract

The objective of this text is to inform and motivate further investigation about the use of levocarnitine as an alternative antidote in patients poisoned by non-anticoagulant rodenticides in a kind of retrospective study through the report of 3 serial cases presented in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the General Hospital Zacatecas 'Luz González Cosío', in Zacatecas, Mexico. Two of them were intoxicated with zinc phosphide and one with sodium fluoracetate, all with similar signs and symptoms. In addition to having received vital support measures in the ICU, levocarnitine was administered intravenously, with remission of symptoms in the short term and hospital discharge without apparent sequelae. Therefore, it is appropriate to consider future research on the use of levocarnitine in this kind of patients, in addition to vital support measures.


Methaemoglobinaemia-induced oxygen desaturation complicating chest trauma

Case presentation

A 72-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department by ambulance following a rollover motor vehicle crash preceded by black-out symptoms. He had been suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis for the last six years and was being treated with dapsone 100 mg and a partially gluten-free diet. On admission he had a respiratory rate of 22, pulse oximetry saturations of 89% improving to 93% with 3 l/min via nasal prongs, a heart rate of 75 bpm, and a non-invasive blood pressure of 111/52. No life-threatening injuries were identified on primary or secondary survey. A trauma CT-series noted left sided rib fractures.


Propofol-induced macroglossia: a case report

Abstract

A 78-year-old lady, without prior exposure to propofol, was admitted to the hospital due to recurrent seizures, and respiratory arrest, which required intubation in order to secure her airway. Propofol was used as the initial sedative agent. Two weeks later she required again administration of propofol, time at which she developed acute macroglossia. This subsided after weaning off the propofol. When she was cared by another team and received for the third time propofol, she developed macroglossia again, and similarly subsided when propofol was weaned off. Allergic reactions to propofol are well documented. We believe that an allergic reaction occurred upon the second and third administration of propofol in our patient.


Malignant pericardial effusion presenting as a wheeze- case report

Abstract

Slow growing pericardial effusion is detected less commonly than acute pericardial tamponade. However, it is equally life threatening if it is more than 250 to 300 ml and can contribute to a similar picture of a fix cardiac output obstructive shock. We would like to report a case of malignant pericardial effusion that was detected in the ICU when the patient presented to the hospital with shortness of breath and generalized wheezes suggestive of respiratory failure from chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD).