Hydrocortisone, vitamin C, and thiamine as treatment of septic shock combined with cardiogenic shock: a case report and literature review

Abstract

Objective: To determine whether the concomitant administration of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine improves sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and mortality in a patient with septic and cardiogenic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), gram negative bacteremia, cardiomyopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and 95% mortality on presentation.

Design: A case report and literature review.

Setting: Surgical Intensive Care Unit at NYU Winthrop Hospital.

Patient: Patient with 95% mortality received appropriate treatment for septic and cardiogenic shock with no clinical improvement.

Intervention: Hydrocortisone 50 mg intravenous push (IVP) every 6 hours for four days, vitamin C 1,500 mg IV every 6 hours for four days, and thiamine 200 mg intravenous piggyback (IVPB) every 12 hours for four days.

Conclusion: Our patient had a remarkable survival of what was thought to be indefinite mortality with the intervention of vitamin C, hydrocortisone, and thiamine. The administration of the vitamin C protocol warrants a randomized controlled trial to change management of septic shock and mortality. We are very optimistic that it will show similar results yielding a significant decrease in mortality rates in patients with septic shock.


Authors: Temima Saltzman, Adel Hanna, Shan Wang

The effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure in reducing the need of endotracheal intubation and increase extubation outcomes

Abstract

Background: Myasthenia gravis is characterized by muscle weakness and fatigability. The affected muscle are ocular muscle, oropharyngeal muscle, facial muscle, and respiratory muscle. This leads to respiratory failure in myasthenia gravis patients with myasthenic crisis. Noninvasive ventilation has been used to treat patients with hypercapnia respiratory failure and associated with reduction of the need of endotracheal intubation, reduction of complication rate, reduction of hospital stays, and reduction of mortality. In myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure, there is no evidence that noninvasive ventilation would reduce those factors. Thus, we studied the effectiveness of noninvasive ventilation in myasthenia gravis patients with respiratory failure in reducing the need of endotracheal intubation and increase extubation outcomes.

Methods: Literature review on PubMed, Elton B. Stephens Co. (EBSCO), Cochrane, and ScienceDirect yield two relevant articles.

Results: Two studies showed that noninvasive ventilation in subject with myasthenia gravis with respiratory failure had better effect.

Conclusion: It is effective to use noninvasive ventilation in subject with myasthenia gravis during their respiratory failure in myasthenic crisis.


Authors: Nadya Farhana, Zulkifli Amin

Carisoprodol intoxication: a comprehensive review

Abstract

Carisoprodol has been widely used as a muscle relaxant agent. In Indonesia, carisoprodol is well-known as carnophene/zenith. Many retailers sell this drug illegally, especially to sex workers to make them feel more relaxed. Due to high incidence of carisoprodol abuse, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) categorized it into Schedule IV. Knowledge about pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of carisoprodol are essential to be understood for proper diagnosis and management. Until now, there are only a few case reports about carisoprodol intoxication and no guideline has been published. This article aims to provide an overview about carisoprodol intoxication, starting from the mechanism of action to its management. In the body, carisoprodol is metabolized to meprobamate by CYP2C19 liver enzyme. Diagnosis of carisoprodol intoxication is challenging because carisoprodol and meprobamate have opposite effect. Gastric lavage, administration of flumazenil and bemegride may be effective for acute intoxication case.


Authors: Zulkifli Amin, Steven Zulkifly, Stephen Diah Iskandar

The use of furosemide in critically ill patients

Abstract

Critically ill patients are those with life threatening illness who, without adequate medical interventions, will suffer from severe morbidity and occasionally mortality. One of the most frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients is distributive or vasogenic shock. After liberal fluid resuscitation, an increase in microvascular hydrostatic pressure, fluid accumulation of interstitial compartment, and impaired organ function occur. Normally this phase, called ebb phase, will return to flow phase where inflammatory mediators homeostasis occurs, plasma oncotic pressure restored, diuresis, extravascular fluid mobilized and negative fluid balance occur. In certain group of patients, there is persistent systemic inflammation, plasma leakage, and failure to achieve flow phase spontaneously, which lead to fluid overload and global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS). GIPS causes venous resistance of organs within compartment, resulting in decreased perfusion pressure and organ failure. In this condition, it is necessary to remove the fluid actively and one of the drugs that can be used is furosemide. This literature review will describe what happens in critically ill patients, how furosemide works, what its benefits are in critically ill patients, what side effects and potential toxicities of furosemide.


Authors: Mayang Indah Lestari, Yohannes WH George

Accuracy of calculated creatinine among amputees: case presentation and literature review

Abstract

Dosing vancomycin for patients who do not follow population pharmacokinetics can be challenging. Standard predictive clinical equations do not account for extreme patient characteristics. In particular, serum creatinine is significantly reduced while creatinine clearance is overestimated in patients with amputations. The “missing” body part must be accounted for when executing a dosing regimen for these challenging patients. In addition, health care professionals must judiciously review the patient holistically, practice evidence-based medicine, and consider the overestimation of renal function, when calculating doses for this and other agents. While current literature does not provide a clear consensus for this population, there are several factors to take into consideration when determining the optimal dose in patients presenting to the hospital requiring medications dosed by changes in renal function. We recently had one such case.


Authors: Janay Bailey, Elizabeth Awudi, Charlene Kalani, George Udeani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani

Anesthesia and intensive care management in acute ischemic stroke patient

Abstract

Acute ischemic stroke is a brain functional disorder, which cause high disability and mortality rate worldwide, the second most common cause of dementia, and the third leading cause of death. It has enormous clinical, social, and economic implications and demands a significant effort from both basic scientists and clinicians in the quest for understanding the underlying pathomechanisms and producing suitable preventive measures and successful therapies. Management of acute ischemic stroke has been revolutionized by the introduction of several interventions, such as prehospital and stroke unit care, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator therapy within 4.5 hours of stroke onset, aspirin therapy within 48 hours of stroke onset, decompressive craniectomy for supratentorial malignant hemispheric cerebral infarct, and more recently endovascular therapy for anterior circulating stroke. Also, special attention in management of vital systemic physiological variables, including oxygenation, blood pressure, temperature, and serum glucose. In line with this, the role of neuroanesthesiologists and neuro critical care in managing acute ischemic stroke become more prominent.


Authors: Hamzah, Prananda Surya Airlangga, Abdulloh Machin, Nancy Margarita Rehatta

Analysis of sepsis and septic shock 3- and 6-hour management at resuscitation room in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital

Abstract

Objective: To provide a record of the implementation and outcome of surviving sepsis campaign 2016 at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, such as 3- and 6-hour sepsis bundle compliance as a baseline and the Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score after 48 hours of treatment. SOFA values were used to predict mortality in the hospital.

Design: This was an observational experimental study that used cross sectional design.

Setting: Resuscitation room in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital.

Patients and participants: A purposive sample was taken of patients older than 17-year-old suspected with sepsis or septic shock according to diagnosis criteria from Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) 2016. Thirty-two patients, consist of 24 male and 8 female patients were included.

Interventions: After patients were suspected of sepsis or septic shock according to diagnosis criteria from SSC 2016, they were treated with 3- and 6-hour sepsis bundle, then the data were collected with questionnaire.

Measurements and results: We found 75% of patients received a 3-hour sepsis bundle in <3 hours, and 50% of patients had 6-hour sepsis bundle in <6 hours. The compliance rate of 3- and 6-hour sepsis and septic shock bundles reached 46.88%. SOFA scores before and after 48-hour management of sepsis had a significant increase with p=0.001 (p<0.05).

Conclusions: There were significant decreasing of SOFA values in baseline and 48 hours after the management of sepsis and septic shock in 81.25% patients (n=26). This result suggests that management of sepsis based on SSC 2016 contribute to the improvement of the patient's condition and better prognosis.


Authors: Arie Utariani, Bambang Pujo Semedi, Rizki Anestesia, Hamzah, Eddy Rahardjo, Elizeus Hanindito

Profile of children with rabies dog bites: Manado experience, Indonesia

Abstract

Background: Rabies is an infectious viral disease that is almost always fatal following the onset of clinical signs. Forty percent of all human rabies occur in children <14-year-old. In up to 99% of rabies virus is transmitted by dogs.

Objective: To determine the mortality risk factor of children with rabies dog bites in Prof. Dr. RD Kandou Hospital, Manado, from 2012-2016.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients with rabies dog bites. Rabies was diagnosed via detection of nucleoprotein from dogs brain using fluorescent antibody test (FAT). We used chi-square test and calculated odd ratio using software SPSS 23.0 to determine the mortality risk factor of patients with rabies dog bites, considering p value <0.05 as significant.

Results: During the study period, 38 children came with rabies dog bites (71.1% were boys). Incubation period range from 1 week to 4 years. Most common bites location was hand. Symptoms associated with rabies mortality were hydrophobia (OR 143, 95% CI 11.78-1735.96, p=0.0001), photophobia (OR 19.6, 95% CI 2.04-181.93, p=0.002), and hypersalivation (100% mortality, p=0.0001). Post-exposure vaccination associated with mortality of patients (OR 0.003, 95% CI 0.000-0.056, p=0.0001).

Conclusion: Hypersalivation, hydrophobia, and photophobia are major risk factors of rabies dog bites mortality. Post-exposure vaccination is important to prevent rabies infection after a high-risk bite.


Authors: Suryadi Nicolaas Napoleon Tatura, Elizabeth Clarissa Wowor, Priscilla Cantia Tatura-Kalensang, Meilany Duri, Tonny Homenta Rampengan

Multivessel spontaneous coronary arterial dissection. Usefulness of angio-CT during follow-up

Abstract

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an uncommon but important cause of myocardial ischemia associated with a high mortality rate. Its aetiology, incidence and pathogenesis are still unknown. It is characterized by the presence of a hematoma and/or the separation of the different layers in the arterial wall, causing vessel lumen stenosis. The clinical manifestation depends on the extent and limitation of the blood flow caused by the dissection, and it varies from an asymptomatic presentation to acute myocardial infarction (50-75%), sudden cardiac death (0.5%) or heart failure.


Authors: JF Garrido Peñalver, JH de Gea García, R. Jara Rubio, E. Pinar Bermúdez, JI Pascual de la Parte, S. Sánchez Cámara

The optimal ICU organizational structure

A variety of intensive care units (ICU) staffing models exist, which to a large extent are based on local practice and economic factors rather than cost-effectiveness and the quality of care delivered. The organizational structure of ICU in the United States are usually classified according to two types of models, namely a low- or high intensity model, or an open- or closed ICU model. (1,2) In a low-intensity ICU, patients are managed by non-intensivists, however an intensivist may be consulted on some cases (open model), whereas in a high-intensity model intensivists are consulted on all patients (open model) or the intensivist assumes responsibility for the patient and directs all aspects of the care (closed model). The closed ICU structure is the predominant model in almost all Western nations. (3,4) There are significant organizational differences between open and closed ICU. Open units are those in which admission of patients to the ICU is uncontrolled and management of the patients is at the discretion of each attending physician (not an intensivist). Admissions are based on a first-come, first-served basis. As the attending of record does not have the time nor skills to provide “comprehensive critical care” he/she "portions off" the patients' care to a number of organ specific sub-specialists.


Authors:

Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis in intensive care

Abstract

Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infectious microbial disease of the heart valvular endothelium. The characteristic lesion consists of the presence of vegetations that can settle in the valvular veils, tendon cords or mural endocardium.

Hospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock has been between 20 and 50%, a fact probably underestimated and overshadowed by a late referral to the intensive care unit, even though clear criteria for entry into the unit have been established for patients with this situation.

The objective of this study was to know the characteristics, evolution and prognosis of patients with infective endocarditis who required treatment in the Intensive Care Unit.


Authors:

Airway pressure release ventilation: translating clinical research to the bedside in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Abstract
Since its birth in the mid eighties of the last century, airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) has been a victim of much debate about its clinical use, benefits, and possible harms. With growing body of literature and evidence, APRV is gaining more acceptance and enthusiasm. Interesting research has been conducted in regards to its benefits in prevention of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), reduction of extra vascular lung water (EVLW), reduction in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), reduction of dead space, weaning off mechanical ventilation, improvement of hemodynamics, improvement in oxygenation, impact on mortality, its use as a non-invasive mode of ventilation, and its role in improving lung procurement for transplantation. The research and clinical application has expanded beyond the adult patients to include critically ill pediatric patients and critically ill animals. This article will review some of the plethora of research done in an attempt to promote its implementation to the bedside.

Airway pressure release ventilation- translating clinical research to the bedside in acute respiratory distress syndrome


Authors:

How to initiate noninvasive ventilation program in your hospital

Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly being employed in the management of acute respiratory failure associated with a number of disease states. However, while there is strong evidence from randomized trials supporting its routine use in the intensive care units (ICU), the task of integrating NIV into standard practice remains a challenging one. In this article, we discuss different considerations surrounding NIV incorporation into hospitals’ standard programs for managing acute respiratory distress. We also outline the important factors crucial for setting up an NIV program and diffusing its operation and the derivable benefits into a clinic’s respiratory care management system. It is important that the NIV diffusion process is anchored on the experience of a clinical champion, an early adopter and opinion leader who is effective in communicating the benefits of noninvasive mechanical ventilation methods to other clinicians.


Authors:

Ethambutol-induced nephrotoxicity: case report and review of the literature

Ethambutol is a common component in the treatment of mycobacteria infections worldwide, and is rarely associated with nephrotoxicity. We report a patient presenting with acute kidney injury due to ethambutol as well as its management and a comprehensive review of the pertinent literature.Ethambutol-induced nephrotoxicity- case report and review of the literature


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