Cytokines, NF-kB, Activated Protein C, Oxidized Phospholipids,

Sepsis and septic shock are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality in the intensive care units. NF-kB, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide (iNO), oxidized phospholipids, and eicosanoids play a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. Conversely, adenosine, activated protein C, oxidized phospholipids, w-3 fatty acids, some inducible cyclo-oxygenase products, and insulin show anti-inflammatory actions and have beneficial effects in sepsis and septic shock. Hence, it is suggested that combined use of some of these naturally occurring and endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds may be of significant benefit in sepsis and septic shock.