Restrictive fluid and fluid removal approach in diabetic ketoacidosis with septic AKI: A case report


Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication that requires a rapid restoration of intravascular volume usually with aggressive administration of intravenous fluid with 0.9% sodium chloride as recommended by the American Diabetes Association. We report a 50-year-old obese female patient with a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) since 20 years ago and routinely using insulin. She experienced dyspnea and presumably was caused by diabetic ketoacidosis. The patient was given fluid resuscitation with normal saline, but the dyspnea did not resolve and the work of breathing increased further, so the patient was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. Aggressive fluid resuscitation carries potential adverse effects such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, interstitial multi-organ edema, and increased incidence of acute kidney injury. The first day of ICU treatment, positive cumulative fluid balance occurred and fluid removal was indicated. Fluid removal using diuretic or ultrafiltration is a part of the treatment of organ congestion and fluid overload after the initial phase of shock resuscitation to achieve negative fluid balance. This case showed that restricted fluid and fluid removal improve the patient outcome, especially in diabetic ketoacidosis and septic AKI patients.